When I conduct bilingual education training for teachers in Taiwan, I usually have the participants discuss their feelings about this statement: It is the job of the bilingual teacher to teach the English language.
Since my audience is typically content teachers, most disagree. When asked why they disagree, they answer, “That’s the English teacher’s job!”
In contrast with these participants, I agree with the statement. I believe it IS the job of the bilingual teacher to teach the English language—the English language of their subject.
I take this position based on the principles of systemic functional linguistics (SFL).
The TESOL Teacher Educator Interest Section (TEIS) hosted a webinar with Dr. Maria Estela Brisk titled SFL Genre Pedagogy: Teaching Writing to Students of all Ages. While she focused on writing specifically, I think the content applies to all types of language production, and I believe the concepts she discussed in regard to SFL are critical knowledge for bilingual teachers.
I want to specifically highlight two points from the video to illustrate why I believe bilingual education teachers should know about and teach the English language.
Every subject has it’s own language
SFL puts the text as the focal point for understanding language (as seen in the picture above). The characteristics of the text are determined by the context of culture. In bilingual education, we can interpret culture as the subject or academic discipline.
Every academic discipline has their own ways of organizing text about their subject, be it oral texts or written texts. This organization is called genre in SFL.
English teachers focus on general language use. They do not have the time to teach the genres of every subject. If bilingual teachers do not teach the subject-specific ways of creating oral or written texts for communication in the subject area, no one will. Which brings us to the second point…
Students have to be taught to produce language, not just told
Participants in bilingual education workshops are often concerned that Taiwanese students do not have enough English ability to communicate in a bilingual classroom—they don’t. Yet, at the same time, they say it is not their job to teach language.
There is a disconnect between these two ideas.
If the goal is for students to be able to use English in the content classroom, we have to teach them how, not just tell them to. Students will not just magically one day be able to use English without being taught, just like students will not magically know how to do chemistry. Explicit teaching matters!
However, this isn’t to say that bilingual teachers will teach like English teachers—they shouldn’t—but it also doesn’t mean they shouldn’t teach language. They must teach language in subject-specific ways that are aligned with the purpose of communicating about the subject, an idea that SFL brings to the forefront.
Teacher educators’ role in teacher SFL genre pedagogy
It is not good enough for a bilingual education teacher to simply be a user of language. Teacher educators must guide bilingual education teachers to also be analyzers of language and teachers of language. Teachers must be able to analyze the subject-specific ways language is used in their disciplines using the principles of SFL. Once teachers become language-aware, they can then teach language to their students using SFL genre pedagogy in a way that integrates content and language.
Dr. Maria Estela Brisk gives a brilliant introduction to these concepts and provides a good starting point for teacher educators to begin to consider how they can convince bilingual education teachers that they ARE teachers of language—the language of their subject.